• "The challenges stregthen us"
























    2024-now Visiting Professor at the University of Campinas (UNICAMP) - Brazil


    2022-now Coordinator Mollusca - Taxonomic Catalog of the Brazilian Fauna (TCBF)



    2018-2024 Research Associate at the University of Campinas (UNICAMP) - Brazil


    2020-2024 Treasurer of the Brazilian Society of Malacology (SBMa)


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    Senckenberg Naturmuseum

    Post-doc Fellowship (2023/2024)

    Project: Taxonomy and morphology of deep sea bivalves: an integrative approach

    *Research area: mollusc systematics

    *Advisor: Dr Julia Sigwart

    *Sponsor: Senckenberg Global Fellowship (Frankfurt, Germany)

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    University of Campinas (UNICAMP)

    Ph.D. in Animal Biology (2014 - 2018)

    *Thesis: Unravelling the diversity of Anomalodesmata (Mollusca: Bivalvia): a morphological and phylogenetic approach

    *Research area: bivalves systematics

    *Advisor: Dr Flávio D. Passos

    *Sponsor: CAPES (Brazil)

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    Harvard University

    Ph.D. sandwich (2017)

    *Research area: Systematics/Anatomy of Bivalvia (Anomalodesmata)

    *Museum of Comparative Zoology, Department of Invertebrate Zoology

    *Concentration area: Zoology, Malacology, Morphology, Phylogeny

    *Advisor: Dr Gonzalo Giribet

    *Sponsor: CAPES (Brazil)

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    University of Campinas (UNICAMP)

    Master in Ecology (2011-2013)

    *Dissertation: Taxonomy, anatomy and biology of microbivalves from Southeastern of Brazil: Cyamiidae G. O. Sars, 1878 and Spheniopsidae J. Gardner, 1928

    *Concentration area: Zoology, Taxonomy, Anatomy, Natural history

    *Advisor: Dr Flávio D. Passos

    *Sponsor: CAPES (Brazil)

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    Pontifical Catholic University of Campinas

    BSc in Biological Sciences (2005 - 2008)

    Undergraduation research:

    -Reproductive aspects of rocky shore fishes: Labrisomidae and Blennidae families

  • "EVERYBODY IS A GENIUS. BUT If you judge a fish BY its ability to climb a tree, IT WILL LIVE ITS WHOLE LIFE BELIEVING THAT IT IS STUPID"

    Albert Einstein


    Associate Researcher

    Institute of Biology (IB), Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP) - Brazil

    2008 - now

    • Assist with undergraduate research and master's projects
    • Field Assistant (intertidal, subtidal and sublittoral sampling)
    • Participation in disciplines (zoology, ecology and science education)
    • Handling different species of aplacophorans, gastropods and mainly bivalves from South Atlantic
    • Practice in the use of tools as Histology, SEM and Micro-CT (Skyscan 1272, 1174, 1178)


    Research Fellow

    The Giribet Lab, Department of Organismic & Evolutionary Biology (Harvard University)- USA

    2017 (https://giribetgroup.oeb.harvard.edu)

    • Practice in the use of Micro-CT (Skyscan 1173) and 3D reconstructions
    • Genomic DNA extraction
    • mRNA extraction
    • PCR amplification (COI, 12S, 16S, 18S, 28S, H3)


    Associate Professor

    Universidade Estadual Paulista- UNESP (Jaboticabal) - Department of Morphology and Animal Physiology, Brazil.


    • Teaching Invertebrate Zoology, Systematics, 'Protists' and Fungi
    • Academic advisor


    Visiting Professor

    Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP) - Brazil


    • Teaching 'Protists' (Amoebozoa, Alveolata, Rhizaria, Stramenopila, Excavata) and Fungi
    • Academic advisor

  • COURSES and symposiums

    • (April, 2008): Evolutionary biology and biodiversity conservation: scientific and social aspects in FAPESP (8 hours);
    • (March, 2011): Taxonomy and phylogeny of marine mollusks in PUC-Campinas, given by Fabrizio M. Machado (40 hours);
    • (July, 2011): Field course at Serra do Mar National Park, Nucleo Picinguaba (Atlantic Forest - 25 days);
    • (August, 2012): Marine Data Management: Perspectives and Research in FAPESP (São Paulo, Brazil) (8 hours);
    • (March, 2012): Topics in Natural History, Systematics and Phylogeny of Organisms (data analysis using R enviroment), given by Dr. André V. L. Freitas (Unicamp-Brazil) and Dr. Nicklas Wahlberg (Lund University, Sweden) (16 hours);
    • (October, 2013): Preparing scientific papers for publication, given by Dr. Andrew T. Peterson (University of Kansas ) (8 hours);
    • (September, 2017): Boston Evolutionary Genomics Supergroup (Annual Retreat-2017), Organized by D. Reich, H. Hoekstra, S. Sunyaev,  J. Wakeley, G. Giribet, J. Mallet and M. Kellis. (8 hours);
    • (September, 2017): Theory and practice of systematics, emphasizing issues associated with homology statements and alignments, methods of tree reconstruction, and hypothesis evaluation. The course combines theoretical considerations, paying special attention to algorithmic aspects of phylogenetics, with the use of different computer programs for conducting evolutionary and phylogenetic analyses. Course OEB-181 by Dr. Gonzalo Giribet (4 months).
    • (Março, 2020): Integrative microscopy and computed microtomography: applications for anatomical, taxonomic and phylogenetic studies. XXXIII Congresso Brasileiro de Zoologia (8 hours).
    • (Novembro, 2020): X-ray microtomography: a non-invasive alternative for studies in Zoology. XLII Semana de Biologia e XXVI Mostra e produção científica da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (8 hours).
    • (Outubro, 2021): Reproduction and integrative biology of marine invertebrates, with an emphasis on biodiversity and conservation. XXVII EBRAM, Porto Alegre, 2021, Symposium.
    • (Outubro, 2021): Integrative microscopy and X-ray microtomography: applications for zoological studies.  XXVII EBRAM, Porto Alegre, 2021,  course (8 hours).


    Participation in Research Projects

    Photo by Fabrizio M. M

    HABITAT'S Project


    Heterogeneity of the Campos Basin-RJ

    Surveys conducted since 2007 by Petrobras/S.A, in partnership with Brazilian research institutions and suppliers, resulted in the first official environmental assessment of the Campos Basin, a region situated between the States of Rio de Janeiro and southern of Espírito Santo. The Habitat's project came from demand from the Brazilian Environmental Institute (Ibama) and was designed to generate and consolidate knowledge of the physical, chemical, geological, biological and socio-economic aspects of that region, covering an area 100 thousand square kilometers. As taxonomist I worked with Dr. Flávio Dias Passos in the identification of Bivalvia and Aplacophora (Mollusca). During my master degree more than 6000 specimens (47 Bivalvia families) were examined and four new species have been described.

    Photo by Fabrizio M.M



    SISBIOTA Brazil: National Biodiversity Research System

    The goal of the National Research System is to promote and increase knowledge of Brazilian biodiversity, improving the predictive ability to respond to global changes, particularly the use changes and land cover and climate change; linking research to the development of human resources, environmental education and dissemination of scientific knowledge. Among the themes of the program are: a) biodiversity knowledge Expansion; b) Standards and biodiversity-related processes; c) Biodiversity Monitoring; d) Development of bioproducts and biodiversity uses. In this project I worked in elaboration of a list of all Bivalvia species reported to the Brazilian coast.

    Photo by Dr. Flávio D. Passos, Côrrea, Visnardi & Miranda

    Mollusca Aplacophora


    Aplacophora (Mollusca) of southeastern Brazil: Diversity, Taxonomy and aspects of bathymetric and geographical distribution

    This project funded by FAPESP (São Paulo Research Foundation), aimed at expanding the knowledge on the ecology and taxonomy of Aplacophora (Mollusca), group until then poorly known in Brazil. Between 2011 and 2013 I actively participated in the initial identification of this material, expanding my knowledge about this group.

    Photo by Fabrizio M.M

    Biota FAPESP (Araçá)

    (2013 - 2017)

    Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning of a coastal subtropical: subsidies for integrated management

    Coordinated by the Dr. Cecília Amaral (Unicamp), this project has the objective of carrying out an investigation that is effectively integrated and guided by this requirement to understand how a coastal region functions in systemic terms, considering physical, biological, and social processes, such as circulation, sediment transport, trophic interactions, matter and energy flows, and fisheries production and dynamics, among other subjects. This project also constitutes an initiative to integrate different areas of knowledge, investigators, and educational and research institutions, in a strategy for the development of human resources, generation of new knowledge, and broadening capabilities within the State of São Paulo for studies in the areas of biodiversity, conservation and management of marine resources. Here in my PhD, I am responsible for identifying of most mollusks collected by the project.

    Photo by Fabrizio M.M


    (2010- 2015)

    Environmental characterization of the Espírito Santo Basin-ES and north of the Campos Basin-RJ

    Surveys conducted since 2010 by Petrobras/S.A, in partnership with Brazilian research institutions and suppliers, resulted in the first official environmental assessment of the Potiguar Basin- ES and North of Campos Basin-RJ. The AMBES project was designed to generate and consolidate knowledge of the physical, chemical, geological, biological and socio-economic aspects of that region. As a taxonomist I worked with Dr Flávio Dias Passos and Msc Amanda Fantinatti in the identification of the molluscan bivalves. During a part of my PhD more than 3000 specimens (30 Bivalvia families) were examined.

    Photo by Fabrizio M.M

    Biota-FAPESP (Museum)

    (2019- 2024)

    Build-up of scientific collections of marine invertebrates: strategies for biodiversity conservation

    The Museum of Zoology of the Institute of Biology of the State University of Campinas (ZUEC) has about 400,000 marine invertebrates, collected by large projects that have been conducted in Brazil since 1990. The rarity of this material is also shown by the depths that were sampled, up to 3300m, in locations that include large canyons on the southeastern coast of Brazil. However, part of this material is not yet identified and/or needs a taxonomic refinement so that it can be translated into biodiversity measures and made available to the scientific community. Thus, we expect to perform a comprehensive study of new taxonomic characters, both morphological and molecular, to allow a better description of biodiversity and to provide a solid basis for the phylogenetic studies proposed in this project and also for future studies. As a Researcher Associate my goal will be to examine, identify and study in detail the anatomy of some marine bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia) using a non-invasive (X-ray microtomography) and molecular approaches.

  • "I have a deep respect for marine life"

    Machado, F. M


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    Master and PhD


    Master degree (2011 - 2013)

    PhD (2014 - now)

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    SIS-BIOTA project


    Scholarship for technical support research (2013)

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    Habitat's project


    Scholarship for researcher (2010 - 2011)

    Photo by Dr. Cecília Amaral

    PhD (logistical support)


    Financial logistical support (2014 - now)

    Process n° 2011/50317-5

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    PhD sandwich


    Scholarship (april to october 2017 )

    Process n° 88881.131768/2016-01

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    Postdoctoral project


    Financial logistical support (2019 - now)

    Process n° 2018/10313

  • "The only place where success comes before work is in the dictionary."

    unknown author

  • presentations and PUBLICATIONS


    • MACHADO, FM (2021). The use of integrative microscopy and X-ray microtomography in the morphological description of marine bivalves: from tissues to cells. XXVII EBRAM (virtual edition). Caderno de resumes, p. xx.
    • INTROÍNI GO, TALLARICO LF, CAMPOS A, PASSOS FD, MACHADO FM, CAMPOS A, SEGER KN, BRAGA LFM, & RECOO-PIMENTEL S M (2021). Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopies of gametes from the Tellinoidea superfamily. XXVII Encontro Brasileiro de Malacologia, Porto Alegre-RS. Caderno de resumos, p. xx.
    • MACHADO, FM (2021). Unlocking the knowledge about rarest marine bivalves (Anomalodesmata): preserved and living specimens. XI CLAMA (virtual edition). Caderno de resumes, p. xx.
    • MACHADO FM (2019). X-ray computed microtomography: a promising tool for the study of anatomy in Mollusca. XXVI Encontro Brasileiro de Malacologia, Juiz de Fora-MG. Caderno de resumos, p. xx.
    • MACHADO FM & PASSOS, FD. (2016) The enigmatic bivalves of Araçá Bay (Brazil): a fauna known but little studied. In: 3º Workshop do Projeto BIOTA/FAPESP-ARAÇÁ. Caderno de resumos, p. 52.
    • MACHADO FM & PASSOS, FD. (2015) Non invasive taxonomy: the first steps in the use of micro tomography for the study of small bivalves in Brazil. In: XXIV Encontro Brasileiro de Malacologia, Rio de Janeiro. Livro de Resumos: Sociedade Brasileira de Malacologia, p. 20.
    • FANTINATTI A, MACHADO FM & PASSOS FD. (2015) The genus Kelliella M. Sars, 1870 (Bivalvia: Kelliellidae): conchological and anatomical features of a possible new species from Brazil. In: XXIV Encontro Brasileiro de Malacologia, Rio de Janeiro. Livro de Resumos: Sociedade Brasileira de Malacologia. 
    • CAMPOS A, INTROÍNI GO, TALLARICO LF, PASSOS FD, MACHADO FM & RECOO-PIMENTEL SM. (2015) Sperm morphology of Laevicardium brasilianum and Trachycardium muricatum (Bivalvia, Cardiidae). In: XXIV Encontro Brasileiro de Malacologia, 2015, Rio de Janeiro. Livro de Resumos. Sociedade Brasileira de Malacologia, p. 117.
    • INTROÍNI GO, TALLARICO LF, CAMPOS A, MACHADO FM, FERNANDES MC, STEIN T, PASSOS FD & RECOO-PIMENTEL S M. (2014) Describing morphological features of gametes produced by Abra, Ervilia and Semele (Bivalvia, Semelidae). In: Mollusca 2014- The meeting of the Americas, Cidade do México. Molluca 2014- Encuentro de las Américas, p. 156.
    • TALLARICO, LF, INTROÍNI GO, PASSOS FD, MACHADO FM, LOURENÇO LB & RECCO-PIMENTEL SM. (2014) Phylogeny of the superfamily Tellinoidea (Mollusca: Bivalvia) based on sperm morphology and molecular data. In: Mollusca 2014- The meeting of the Americas, Cidade do México. Molluca 2014- Encuentro de las Américas. p. 213.
    • MACHADO FM & PASSOS FD. (2014) Taxonomic review and biology of carnivorous bivalves (Mollusca: Cuspidariidae) from Brazil. In: II Workshop Biota/Fapesp- Araçá, São Paulo. Caderno de Resumos- Módulo 3 Sistema Bentônico. p. 52.
    • MACHADO FM & PASSOS FD. (2014) Carnivorous bivalves (Mollusca: Anomalodesmata): new species, anatomy, behaviour and phylogeny. In: II Simpósio de Zoologia Sistemática, Belo Horizonte. ANAIS, p. 85-85.
    • INTROÍNI GO, TALLARICO LF, CAMPOS A, MACHADO FM, FERNANDES MC, STEIN T, PASSOS FD & RECCO-PIMENTEL SM. (2013) Describing morphological features of oocytes: an attempt to unravel reproductive aspects of Tellinidae and Psamobiidae species (Bivalvia: Tellinoidea). In: In: In: Word Congress of Malacology, Ponta Delgada-Açores. Açoreana-Book of abstracts, suplemento 8, T09.O5. p.223.
    • TALLARICO LF, INTROÍNI GO, BONINI A, PASSOS FD, MACHADO FM, ARRUDA EP & RECCO-PIMENTEL SM. (2013) Ultra-structural sperm features and molecular data of Caryocorbula caribaea (d' Orbigny, 1853), a species with a extraordinary conchological plasticity. In: Word Congress of Malacology, Ponta Delgada-Açores. Açoreana-Book of abstracts, T09.06. p.224.
    • CAMPOS A, INTROÍNI GO, TALLARICO LF, PASSOS FD, MACHADO FM & RECCO-PIMENTEL SM. (2013) What the gametic morphology of Felaniella candeana tell us about the removal of Ungulinidae from Lucinoidea?. In: In: Word Congress of Malacology, Ponta Delgada-Açores. Açoreana-Book of abstracts, suplemento 8, T17.P3. p.316.
    • TALLARICO LF, PASSOS FD, MACHADO FM, CAMPOS A, RECCO-PIMENTEL SM & INTROÍNI GO. (2013) A survey of bivalves from northern seaboard of the São Paulo State, Brazil. In: In: In: Word Congress of Malacology, Ponta Delgada-Açores. Açoreana-Book of abstracts, suplemento 8, T16.P3. p.306.
    • VITONIS JEVV, ZANIRATO CP, MACHADO FM & PASSOS FD. (2012) Standardization of the nomenclature of the siphonal muscular layers of Tellinidae, based on topological homology. In: XI Internacional Congress on Medical and Apllied Malacology, Rio de Janeiro. Abstracts book- ICMAM.
    • BONINI A, INTROÍNI GO, TALLARICO LF, MACHADO FM. PASSOS FD & RECCO-PIMENTEL SM. (2012) Spermatozoon ultrastructure of Solen tehuelchus (Bivalvia, Solenidae). In: XI Internacional Congress on Medical and Apllied Malacology, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 2012. Resumos. p. 204.
    • CAMPOS A, INTROÍNI GO, TALLARICO LF, PASSOS FD, MACHADO FM & RECCO-PIMENTEL SM. (2012) Spermatozoan ultrastructure of Diplodonta punctata Say, 1822 (Mollusca: Bivalvia). In: XI Internacional Congress on Medical and Apllied Malacology, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 2012. Resumos. p. 205.
    • MACHADO FM & PASSOS FD. (2012) The importance of histology in the description of a new Brazilian microbivalve species of Cyamiidae. In: XI Internacional Congress on Medical and Apllied Malacology, Rio de Janeiro. Abstracts book- ICMAM.
    • CAMPOS A, TALLARICO LF, MACHADO FM, PASSOS FD, INTROÍNI GO & RECCO-PIMENTEL SM. (2012) Estudo ultra-estrutural dos gametas de espécies da Ungulinidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia). In: Congresso interno de Iniciação Científica da Unicamp, XIX CAEB, Campinas, SP.
    • BONINI A, TALLARICO LF, MACHADO FM, PASSOS FD, INTROÍNI GO & RECCO-PIMENTEL SM. (2012) Estudo ultra-estrutural de espermatozóides de espécies do gênero Corbula (Bivalvia, Corbulidae) da região costeira do Estado de São Paulo. In: In: Congresso interno de Iniciação Científica da Unicamp, XIX CAEB, Campinas, SP.
    • MACHADO FM & PASSOS FD. (2011) Cyamiocardium Soot Ryen, 1951 (Bivalvia, Cyamioidea, Cyamiidae): new species or a new record from the brazilian coast. In: VIII Congresso Latinoamericano de Malacología, Puerto Madryn.
    • MACHADO FM & PASSOS FD. (2011) Novos registros da família Spheniopsidae Gardner, 1928 para o Oceano Atlântico e considerações sobre o seu posicionamento filogenético dentre os Anomalodesmata (Bivalvia). In: XXII-EBRAM- Encontro Brasileiro de Malacologia, Fortaleza-Brasil. 
    • SALVO LM, TALLARICO LF, MACHADO FM, SEVERINO D, SILVA-NETO GM, TIAGO CG & SILVA JRMC. (2011) Histological and biochemical biomarkers to assess the sublethal effects of water- soluble fraction of petroleum (WSF) on Perna perna mussels. In: VIII Congresso Latinoamericano de Malacología, Puerto Madryn.
    • BONINI A, INTROÍNI GO, TALLARICO LF, MACHADO FM, PASSOS FD & RECCO-PIMENTEL SM. (2011) Sperm ultrastuctural analyses of Corbula caribaea (Bivalvia:Corbulidae). In: XXII-EBRAM- Encontro Brasileiro de Malacologia, Fortaleza.
    • CAMPOS A, INTROÍNI GO, TALLARICO LF, MACHADO FM, PASSOS FD & RECCO-PIMENTEL SM. (2011) Sperm ultrastructural study of Felaniella candeana (Bivalvia: Ungulinidae). In: XXII-EBRAM- Encontro Brasileiro de Malacologia, Fortaleza.
    • TALLARICO LF, INTROÍNI GO, PASSOS FD, MACHADO FM & RECCO-PIMENTEL SM. (2011) A check list of bivalves from Araçá Bay (São Sebastião, São Paulo): a enviromental heritage threatened. In: XXII EBRAM- Encontro Brasileiro de Malacologia, Fortaleza.
    • INTROÍNI GO, TALLARICO LF, PASSOS FD, MACHADO FM & RECCO-PIMENTEL SM. (2011) Estudo ultra-estrutural de espermatozóides de Sanguinolaria sanguinolenta (Bivalvia: Psammobiidae): Evidências de estreita proximidade com Tellininae ou de convergência adaptativa?. In: XXII EBRAM- Encontro Brasileiro de Malacologia, Fortaleza, CE. 2011. Resumos. p. 309.
    • CAMPOS A, TALLARICO LF, MACHADO FM, PASSOS FD, INTROÍNI GO & RECCO-PIMENTEL SM. (2011) Estudo ultra-estrutural do espermatozóide da espécie Felaniella candeana (Mollusca, Bivalvia). In: Congresso interno de Iniciação Científica da Unicamp, XIX CAEB, Campinas, SP.
    • BONINI A, TALLARICO LF, MACHADO FM, PASSOS FD, INTROÍNI GO & RECCO-PIMENTEL SM. 2011. Estudo ultra-estrutural de espermatozóides de Corbula caribaea (Mollusca, Bivalvia). In: Congresso interno de Iniciação Científica da Unicamp, XIX CAEB, Campinas, SP.
    • MACHADO FM & SILVA JP. (2009) Reproductive biology and description of a new testicular maturity process in Parablennius marmoreus (Blennioidei, Blennidae) and Malacoctenus delalandii (Blennioidei, Labrisomidae). (2009) In: Colacmar-  Congresso Latino Americano de Ciências Marinhas, Cuba. Livro de resumos do COLACMAR. v. 1. p. 56-57.


    • BOEGER W, VALIN M.P, ZAHER H, RAFAEL J.A, FORZZA R.C...MACHADO F.M et al (2024). Catálogo Taxonômico da Fauna do Brasil: setting the baseline knowledge on the animal diversity in Brazil. Zoologia (accepted for publication)

    Link: soon...


    Abstract: soon... 

    • AMARAL A.C.Z, CUNHA B.P, CHECON H.H, GODOY A.S...MACHADO F.M. et al (2024). The high biodiversity of benthic organisms in a coastal ecosystem revealed by an integrative approach. Biota Neotropica 24(2): e20231583.

    Link: https://www.scielo.br/j/bn/a/xTc8wXwJdmYptfppdbSH7tq/


    Abstract: Increasing habitat modification and species loss demand consistent efforts to describe and understand biodiversity patterns. The BIOTA/FAPESP Program was created in this context and it has been a successful initiative to promote studies on biodiversity and conservation in Brazil. The BIOTA/Araçá is an interdisciplinary project that provided a detailed evaluation of the biodiversity of Araçá Bay, a coastal seascape located on the North coast of the state of São Paulo, Southeast Brazil. The bay encompasses multiple habitats, such as beaches, mangroves, rocky shores, and a tidal flat, and provides important ecosystem services. Unfortunately, the bay is the subject of complex social-environmental conflicts that oppose economic, social, and environmental demands (i.e., the expansion of neighboring harbor activities vs. small-scale artisanal fisheries and protection of biodiversity). The present study presents a survey of the benthic species occurring in the different habitats of Araçá Bay, including data obtained during the BIOTA/Araçá project and previous assessments of the area. The benthic species play an important role in marine environments and studying the diversity of these organisms that live associated with the bottom is indispensable for comprehending the environment’s functioning. The macrofauna, meiofauna, and microorganisms associated with soft and hard bottom were listed, and additional information, such as the habitat and geographical distribution, were provided for each species. The checklist includes 826 species, almost 70% recorded during the BIOTA/Araçá project. The most speciose taxa were the annelids (225 spp.), mollusks (194 spp.), and crustaceans (177 spp.). Seven benthic species are endemic to Araçá Bay, 14 are considered threatened, and seven are economically exploited. Furthermore, the bay is the type locality of many taxa, and 11 new benthic species were described based on specimens sampled during the project. This project shows the importance of Araçá Bay as a unique biologically rich environment and highlights the need for conservation efforts in light of the current threats.

    • MACHADO F.M & SALVADOR R.B (2024). Why avoid naming diseases after animals? The case of "Molluscum contagiosum". Tropical Medicine and Health 52, 21.

    Link: https://tropmedhealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s41182-024-00586-4


    Abstract: For over 200 years, the name molluscum contagiosum—a dermatological disease—has unfairly associated molluscs (the second largest group of animals on the planet) with this highly contagious infectious disease. Herein, arguments are presented demonstrating the serious problem of continuing to use this name, including animal welfare concerns. Thus, to minimize any unnecessary impacts on the biodiversity and conservation of molluscs, we follow WHO best practices in naming diseases to suggest the use of the new term ‘wpox’ or ‘water warts’ as a synonym for molluscum contagiosum.



    Link: https://www.scielo.br/j/zool/a/39cb6vDrSBw437MNdx4CPPS/


    Abstract: The expression ‘you need to know to conserve’ is a well-known cliche among biologists. Documenting the richness of a group of organisms is the first step towards understanding biodiversity and preparing efficient conservation plans. In this context, many efforts have been made to quantify the number of species on Earth and estimate the number of species still unknown to science. A few countries have complete and integrated databases estimating the approximate number of species recorded for their territory, particularly in the Global South. In Brazil, a country of continental dimensions, revealing the richness of the second most diverse clade of invertebrates (=Mollusca) has been a goal of taxonomists. Recently, in an unprecedented, collective, and integrated effort among Brazilian malacologists, it was possible to estimate how many valid species of molluscs are there in Brazil. In this effort, more than 30 mollusc experts joined together to update the Taxonomic Catalogue of the Brazilian Fauna (TCBF), a governmental website that allows a quick and real-time updating of all Metazoan. So far, more than 5,000 updates have been made in TCBF, indicating the presence of 3,552 valid species of molluscs in Brazil, distributed among the main clades as follows: Caudofoveata (10 spp.), Solenogastres (6 spp.), Polyplacophora (35 spp.), Scaphopoda (43 spp.), Cephalopoda (92 spp.), Bivalvia (629 spp.) and Gastropoda (2,737 spp.). The present study, in addition to demonstrating for the first time the richness of Brazilian molluscs, also presents the state of the art of this important phylum of invertebrates highlighting its most representative and neglected groups.


    • MACHADO F.M & PASSOS F.D (2022). Revisiting the morphological aspects of the Anomalodesmata (Mollusca: Bivalvia): a phylogenetic approach. Invertebrate Systematics 36: 1063-1098

    Link: https://www.publish.csiro.au/IS/justaccepted/IS22028


    Abstract: The Anomalodesmata Dall, 1899 includes some of the rarest and most specialized species of marine bivalves. This rarity has consequently constituted the greatest obstacle for understanding their internal relationships due to the low representativeness of species present in any phylogenetic reconstructions. Therefore, with the primary purpose of creating a more comprehensive morphological analysis, data including all the anomalodesmatan families were gathered into a cladistic analysis. Our data set includes, for the first-time, information about members of the families Clistoconchidae, Cetoconchidae, Protocuspidariidae, Spheniopsidae and the recently described Bentholyonsiidae. Information on shell morphology, anatomy, and behavior of anomalodesmatans were compiled through a review of the literature (from 1895 to 2022) plus a re-analysis of shells and internal anatomy of some fresh collected and archived specimens in museum collections around the world. Our analysis suggests a deep division of the Anomalodesmata into two distinct clades: the first generally composed of shallow water species from 12 families, and a second clade of a carnivorous lineage mainly comprising deep water species from 10 families. Consequently, a new topology for Anomalodesmata is suggested bringing new insights into the interfamilial relationships of this, sometimes bizarre, clade of bivalves.

    • MORTON B & MACHADO F.M (2021). The origins, relationships, evolution and conservation of the weirdest marine bivalves: the watering pot shells. A review. Advances in Marine Biology 88: 137-220.

    Link: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065288121000018


    Abstract: The fossil record shows that the two clavagelloid or watering pot families evolved at different times, the Clavagellidae first in the late Mesozoic (100–66 mya), the Penicillidae later in the Cenozoic (33–23 mya)—the former originally with, thus, a near-global Tethyan distribution, the latter restricted to the Indo-West Pacific. Representatives of the two clavagelloid families, moreover, have wholly different adventitious tube/crypt structures and, thus, methods of formation suggesting that evolutionary experiments have been undertaken to achieve such radical architectural novelties. This has resulted in one of the most surprising examples of convergent evolution in the Bivalvia. But, what were the ancestors of the Clavagelloidea? The shell and internal morphology of representatives of the three recognized genera of the Lyonsiidae, that is, Lyonsia, Entodesma and Mytilimeria, are described. Species of the latter two genera are highly specialized epibenthic, byssate, nestlers and embedded symbionts of ascidian colonies and sponges, respectively. Species of Lyonsia, however, are mostly shallow endobenthic burrowers. On the basis of these studies, it is concluded that species of Lyonsia can be regarded as representative of the ancestral watering pot (Clavagelloidea) condition. Evidence for this conclusion include the mineralogy, characteristics and ligament structure of the shell and features of the anatomy, importantly the modification of the vestigial pedal retractor muscles to form simple (Clavagellidae) and more complex (Penicillidae) proprioreceptors. Such an anatomy-based conclusion is supported to some extent by DNA analyses of representatives of the Lyonsiidae and the two constituent families of the Clavagelloidea. To some extent because all clavagelloids are exceedingly rare hindering such analyses. Such rarity, however, also argues for the strict conservation of all the species of the Clavagelloidea.


    • ​MORTON B & MACHADO F. M (2019). Predatory marine bivalves: A review. Advances in Marine Biology 84: 1-98. 

    Link: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S006528811930032X


    Abstract: Most bivalves are suspension feeders. On the deep sea floor, however, some are predators, typically of meiobenthic crustaceans: copepods, cumaceans and ostracods. Propeamusiid scallops are one such group of predators. The largest numbers of predators, however, belong to the bivalve subclass Anomalodesmata and constitute, as currently recognised, some 500 species belonging principally to the Verticordioidea (120), Poromyoidea (75) and Cuspidarioidea (304) with four, two and four constituent families, respectively. A further family, the Parilimyidae, is considered to be derived from the Pholadomyoidea—the anomalodesmatan ancestor. These, generally small (< 60 mm shell length), nacreous and thin-shelled predators share many anatomical features that formerly allowed them to be collectively classified as the Septibranchia. Although this name is now rarely used, it refers to their possession of a ctenidially-derived septum in the mantle cavity and functioning in prey capture. Generally, there is a trend, possibly evolutionary, from a typical bivalve ctenidium (Parilimyidae and some Verticordioidea) to a complete septum (other Verticordioidea, Poromyoidea and Cuspidarioidea). In addition, the inhalant siphon, foot, labial palps, mouth and its lips play a role in prey capture, and ingestion. Similarly, the stomach is modified to digest such, typically chitinous, ingested prey. Most septibranchs are either consecutive or simultaneous hermaphrodites with self-fertilisation possibly usual and with some evidence in a few of larval brooding. Notwithstanding, the deep sea septibranch species are poorly studied with virtually nothing being known about their wider distributions, ecology, detailed reproductive strategies and life history traits.


    • MORTON B, MACHADO F. M & PASSOS F. D (2019). The anatomy of the miniature predator Trigonulina ornata (Bivalvia: Anomalodesmata: Verticordiidae) from continental shelf waters off Brazil. Marine Biodiversity 49 (6): 1-16.

    Link: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12526-019-01017-y


    Abstract: The anatomy of one of the smallest non-septate carnivorous bivalves is described herein and is the first anatomical study of a member of the genus Trigonulina. This paper shows that similar to other verticordiids, Trigonulina ornata d’Orbigny, 1853 possesses a suite of anatomical features that include a prey-capturing inhalant siphon, a septum, an absence of labial palps and capacious mouth, which characterize it as a carnivorous marine bivalve. A discussion about the origin of the septibranch septum is provided showing that the condition seen in T. ornata could be representative of the transition within the Anomalodesmata between suspension-feeding type E ctenidia and the non-filamentar septibranch condition. Finally, fertilized and encapsulated eggs within the visceral mass, the presence of hypobranchial glands plus larval prodissoconch size collectively suggest self-fertilization and the possible early brooding behaviour by T. ornata.


    • MACHADO F. M, PASSOS F. D & GIRIBET, G (2019). The use of micro-computed tomography as a minimally-invasive tool for anatomical study of bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 186: 46-75.

    Link: https://doi.org/10.1093/zoolinnean/zly054


    Abstract: Micro-computed tomography or micro-CT is a minimally invasive technique capable of generating 2D images and 3D tomographic reconstructions of small-sized animals without destroying the physical specimens. The technique has been previously applied to the study of bivalves, and here we extend it to study the anatomy of eight anomalodesmatan species through the exclusive use of a tomographic approach. Freshly fixed and museum specimens of Anomalodesmata, one of the least understood clades of bivalves, were selected and scanned. Tomographic anatomical descriptions were generated for Pandora pinna (Pandoridae), Lyonsia alvarezii (Lyonsiidae), Allogramma formosa (Lyonsiellidae), Trigonulina ornata (Verticordiidae), Poromya rostrata (Poromyidae), Cetoconcha spinosula, Cetoconcha aff. smithii (Cetoconchidae) and Cuspidaria glacialis (Cuspidariidae). The main internal anatomical features often evaluated for anomalodesmatans were documented. The tomographic images allowed for a detailed description of anatomical structures, including the mantle, ctenidia, labial palps and siphons, as well as the digestive, reproductive and nervous systems. This non-destructive technique thus proved to be an efficient tool for describing the anatomy of bivalves. The potential of micro-CT in concert with the constant development of new scanners, bring fresh perspectives to the anatomical study of bivalves. Poromya spinosula is transferred to Cetoconcha and Cetoconchidae, as Cetoconcha spinosula (Thiele, 1912) comb. nov.


    • CAMPOS A, INTROINI G.O, TALLARICO L.F, MACHADO F.M, PASSOS F.D & RECCO-PIMENTEL S.M. (2018). Ultrastructure of the spermatozoa of three species of Anomalodesmata (Mollusca, Bivalvia) and phylogenetic implications. Acta Zoologica, 101 (2): 156-166.

    Link: https://doi.org/10.1111/azo.12282


    Abstract: Anomalodesmata is the rarest and most specialized group of the class Bivalvia. In general, scarce data on sperm ultrastructure of anomalodesmatan are available in the literature. Aiming to contribute to an understanding of spermatozoon morphology in this group, the present study describes the ultrastructure of male gametes of three species—Cardiomya cleryana (Orbigny 1842) (Cuspidariidae), Pandora brevirostris Güller and Zelaya 2016 (Pandoridae) and Thracia similis Couthouy 1839 (Thraciidae). C. cleryana has an acrosome located at the anterior region, and the mitochondria are symmetrically arranged, while the spermatozoa of P. brevirostris and T. similis have unique characteristics, in particular the association of the acrosome with the midpiece and asymmetric mitochondria. This position of the acrosome appears to be peculiar among Anomalodesmata and is unknown for non‐anomalodesmatan bivalves. The present ultrastructural description of spermatozoa contributes to differentiate the studied species, bringing new insights about the sperm features of anomalodesmatan species and shares several characteristics with that of other species of the two lineages proposed by molecular phylogeny


    • PASSOS F. D, MACHADO F. M & FANTINATI, A (2017). Shell morphology ​of a new Brazilian species of Kelliellidae and a brief review of the genus Kelliella (Mollusca: Bivalvia). Marine Biodiversity, 49 (1): 207-219.

    Link: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12526-017-0782-4


    Abstract: The bivalves of the families Vesicomyidae and Kelliellidae are common bottom inhabitants of the deep-sea, with some taxonomic controversy concerning the smaller forms of the former, which are frequently confused as species of the latter. Based on specimens collected from shallow waters of the southeastern Brazilian coast, a new species of Kelliella is described, through a detailed description of its shell, which is compared with those from other species already referred for this genus. Its minute valves with rounded contour and a marked lunule are very similar to those of K. miliaris, the type-species of kelliellids, differing in only some details of the hinge dentition. Most species of the genus Kelliella are currently assigned to the genus Vesicomya, causing great difficulties as far as knowledge of the real diversity of the family Kelliellidae. This study represents part of a continuing work on new discoveries regarding t he marine molluscs of the southwestern Atlantic. Here, a review of the genus Kelliella is provided, highlighting some shell features that will be important in future comparative studies between these bivalve families.


    • MACHADO F. M, MORTON B & PASSOS, F. D. (2017) Functional morphology of Cardiomya cleryana (d'Orbigny, 1842) (Bivalvia: Anomalodesmata: Cuspidariidae) from Brazilian waters: new insights into the lifestyle of carnivorous bivalves. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK, 97 (2): 447-462.

    Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315416000564 (Watch the video - Cardiomya cleryana behaviour - in Supplementary material)


    Abstract: Of the more than 800 Recent species of Anomalodesmata only 16 have been studied alive. The Septibranchia, comprising a number of carnivorous bivalve superfamilies, are no exception to this generalization and, until recently, no living member of this group has been studied since the 1980s. Collected from the shallow, shelf seabed off Brazil, Cardiomya cleryana is one of only a few species to have its morphology described in recent years and the first ever anomalodesmatan to be filmed alive. Important anatomical features such as a greatly extensible foot to secure itself in the sediment with a single byssal thread, exhalant siphon inter-tentacular projections and micro-papillae on the surface of the siphonal tentacles are described. Observations on the species’ behaviour have revealed a lifestyle hitherto not recorded for any septibranch, indeed any anomalodesmatan. The anchoring mechanism of C. cleryana using an extraordinarily long byssal thread is described for the first time. The life position of C. cleryana is at 45° to the sediment-water interface whereas other cuspidariids have been considered to orient themselves vertically. An anatomical comparison between Cardiomya and Bathyneaera has revealed close affinities. This study thus provides new insights into the morphology and behaviour of the Cuspidariidae.


    • BONINI A, INTROINI G. O, TALLARICO L. F, MACHADO F. M & RECCO-PIMENTEL S. M. (2016) Shell morphology and sperm ultrastructure of Solen tehuelchus Hanley, 1842 (Bivalvia: Solenidae): New taxonomic characters. American Malacological Bulletin, 34 (2): 73-78.

    Link: https://doi.org/10.4003/006.034.0202


    Abstract: Solen tehuelchus Hanley, 1842 is currently the only razor-clam reported from Brazilian waters. Although its shell is well known and similar to the other Solenoidea, their anatomical aspects are poorly studied. Recently some living specimens of S. tehuelchus were obtained from a Brazilian beach, allowing the removal of their testes for an ultrastructural analysis. In order to add a new anatomical feature for this species and provide a brief comparison between some related taxa, the shell and sperm ultrastructure were described in detail. The present study showed that characteristics of the spermatozoa of S. tehuelchus are similar to those of other solenids, although certain sperm ultrastructural characteristics such as a short acrosome with an electron-dense base and rounded nucleus are also similar to the species Tagelus plebeius (Lightfoot, 1786) (Solecurtidae). Herein, we have added new anatomic and taxonomic data hitherto unknown to science. The sperm morphology of S. tehuelchus, might in the near future bring new insights into the systematic of Solenidae.


    • MORTON B, MACHADO F. M & PASSOS F. D. (2016) The organs of prey capture and digestion in the miniature predatory bivalve Spheniopsis brasiliensis (Anomalodesmata: Cuspidarioidea: Spheniopsidae) expose a novel life-history trait. Journal of Natural History, 50 (27-28): 1725-1748.

    Link: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00222933.2016.1155780 


    Abstract: Spheniopsis brasiliensis, from depths of 17–148 m off the southern Atlantic coast of Brazil, is a predator of epipsammic micro-crustaceans which it sucks into the infra-septal chamber using a raptorial inhalant siphon and internally generated hydrostatic suction forces. Prey items, which include ostracods, are thought to be pushed into the funnel-shaped mouth using the foot. The stomach is capacious with a short style sac conjoined briefly with the mid gut and possessing a stubby crystalline style. Internal stomach architecture is simplified, with no identifiable sorting areas (unlike other cuspidarioids) and lined virtually completely by a gastric shield. The exoskeletal remains of digested prey are held in the posterior end of the stomach and not in a specialised waste storage pouch as in the con-familial Grippina coronata. The mid gut, hind gut and rectum are all extremely narrow and, thus, only the smallest of faeces can be accommodated and transmitted for anal discharge. Spheniopsis brasiliensis, like G. coronata is a self-fertilising simultaneous hermaphrodite with encapsulated lecithotrophic eggs brooded internally. Both taxa are thus ovovivaporous. It is also believed that both taxa are univoltine so that larvae and the exoskeletal prey remains are all released post mortem. Cuspidariids are generally regarded as dioecious but, recently, Cardiomya costellata has been shown to be a non-brooding simultaneous hermaphrodite. The distinguishing characters between cuspidariids and spheniopsids thus appear to be their differing reproductive strategies and life history trait.


    • MORTON B, MACHADO F. M & PASSOS F. D. (2015) The smallest carnivorous bivalve? Biology, morphology and behaviour of Grippina coronata (Anomalodesmata: Cuspidarioidea: Spheniopsidae) preying on epipsammic microcrustaceans in the southwestern Atlantic off Brazil. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 82 (2): 244-258.

    Link: https://academic.oup.com/mollus/article/82/2/244/2607357


    Abstract: The Spheniopsidae are today represented by five living species of Spheniopsis and nine of Grippina, distributed in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Little is known of their anatomy and the phylogenetic position of the family within the Bivalvia is debated. In order to investigate these questions, the functional morphology of Grippina coronata obtained from the continental shelf off Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo States, Brazil, has been examined. Less than 2 mm in shell length, the siphonal apparatus of G. coronata is complex, with seven sensory papillae, and the ctenidia are reduced to transverse septa pierced by four pairs of ciliated pores. There are no labial palps and the stomach is of Type II with epibenthic harpacticoid and ostracod prey identified inside it. Although there is an intestine producing faeces, the stomach also possesses a unique waste storage pouch for exoskeletal remains of digested prey. Collectively, these features suggest that the Spheniopsidae comprise carnivorous taxa belonging to the Cuspidarioidea within the Anomalodesmata. Grippina coronatais a self-fertilizing simultaneous hermaphrodite that, uniquely, broods fertilized oocytes within the ovarian follicles and, thereby, provides the first example of intrafollicular fertilization and brooding in the Bivalvia. Release of the encapsulated oocytes must be by parental death, which coincidentally releases the exoskeletal remains from the storage pouch. Such post mortemsemelparity creates a life-history trait hitherto unrecognized in the Bivalvia.


    • MACHADO F. M & PASSOS, F. D. (2015) Spheniopsidae Gardner, 1928 (Bivalvia): Conchological Characters of Two New Species from off Brazil, Southwestern Atlantic. American Malacological Bulletin, (33): 1-9.

    Link: https://doi.org/10.4003/006.033.0207


    Abstract: The Spheniopsidae Gardner, 1928 comprises four living species of Spheniopsis Sandberger, 1861 and eight of Grippina Dall, 1912, the latter restricted to the Pacific Ocean, the former also occurring in the Atlantic. Spheniopsis brasiliensis new species and Grippina coronata new species are described from the Brazilian southeastern coast, based on a detailed study of their shells. They are distinguished from already described species mainly by differences in the outline of the valves, external sculpture and right hinge dentition. Shallow micro-pits present all over the outer surface of the dissoconch are viewed as similar to those already described for cuspidariids. They may, thus, represent further evidence for the relatedness of spheniopsids and cuspidarioideans. The new species from Brazil represent the first finding of these rare minute bivalves of this family from the southwestern Atlantic.


    • TALLARICO L, INTROÍNI G. O, BONINI A, PASSOS F. D, MACHADO F. M, ARRUDA E. P & RECCO-PIMENTEL S. M. (2015) Spermatozoan ultrastructure and mitochondrial gene sequence of Caryocorbula caribaea (d'Orbigny, 1853) (Corbulidae: Bivalvia), a species with plasticity in shell morphology. Molluscan Research, (36): 1-6.

    Link: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13235818.2015.1052127


    Abstract: Systematics of Corbulidae supported by anatomical and conchological studies remains confused and controversial because of the considerable phenotypic plasticity of their shells. Ultrastructural spermatozoan study and molecular analyses have been performed to contribute valuable information, which could be used in taxonomy. Electron microscopy was used to analyse sperm cells from specimens of Caryocorbula (Gardner, 1926) exhibiting shell differences. The spermatozoon was of the aquasperm type, showing short acrosome, barrel-shaped nucleus, midpiece composed of four spherical mitochondria and simple flagellum. In addition, about 860 base pairs of mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit (16S rRNA) were sequenced from each individual. The consistent similarity shared by spermatozoa and DNA sequences from all studied specimens indicated that they belonged to one coherent unit, Caryocorbula caribaea (d'Orbigny, 1853), despite the extraordinary plasticity exhibited by their shells.


    • PASSOS F. D & MACHADO F. M. (2014) A new species of Cyamiocardium Soot-Ryen, 1951 from shallow waters off Brazil, with a discussion on the anatomical characters of the Cyamiidae (Bivalvia: Cyamioidea). American Malacological Bulletin, (32): 122-131.

    Link: https://doi.org/10.4003/006.032.0110


    Abstract: Cyamiocardium domaneschii n. sp. is described from shallow waters off the Southeastern coast of Brazil. An anatomical study provides comparisons with other Cyamioidea. It has a small shell (up to 3.1 mm in length), valves with a rounded contour, external radial sculpture, a distinct large prodissoconch, and hinge structure characteristics of the genus Cyamiocardium Soot-Ryen, 1951. Three well-defined pallial openings are present; tentacles border the anteriormost part of the pedal opening and the inhalant and exhalant apertures. The inner demibranchs are larger than the outers, do not have interlamellar junctions, and form a spacious brooding chamber. It is dioecious and developing oocytes are covered by a thin follicular tissue, which persists as a covering of each brooded young. Offspring are retained up to the juvenile stage, and are attached to the gill filaments by a long stalk. The foot has a narrow, grooved ventral sole; no byssus threads were observed. An active burrowing or crawling behavior is suggested for C. domaneschii n. sp., as there are well developed statocysts. This finding of a cyamiid from Brazil represents the extension of the geographical distribution of this family further north in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. This study also reveals that some anatomical characters are variable in the genus Cyamiocardium: in C. denticulatum (Smith, 1907), there are only two pallial openings and its foot does not have a ventral sole. The attachment of young to the gills are not related to nourishment, and here for C. domaneschiin. sp. it is suggested that the stalk is only used as a “safety belt”, preventing embryos and juveniles to be released before the end of their development. More studies remain to be done on the anatomy of cyamioideans, particularly on living specimens; we paid attention to common characters used for discussions on the taxonomy and biology of these bivalves.


    • TALLARICO L. F, PASSOS F. D, MACHADO F. M, CAMPOS A, RECCO-PIMENTEL S. M & INTROINI G. O. (2014) Bivalves of the São Sebastião Channel, north coast of the São Paulo State, Brazil. Check List, (10): 97- 105.                                       

    Link: https://www.biotaxa.org/cl/article/view/10.1.97/10364


    Abstract: The north coast of the São Paulo State, Brazil, presents great bivalve diversity, but knowledge about these organisms, especially species living subtidally, remains scarce. Based on collections made between 2010 and 2012, the present work provides a species list of bivalves inhabiting the intertidal and subtidal zones of the São Sebastião Channel. Altogether, 388 living specimens were collected, belonging to 52 species of 34 genera, grouped in 18 families. Tellinidae, Veneridae, Semelidae, Ungulinidae, Mactridae, Solecurtidae, Corbulidae, Cardiidae, Lucinidae, Cooperellidae, Nuculidae, Psammobiidae, Donacidae, Solenidae, Periplomatidae, Thraciidae and Arcidae were the most representative families in this collection. Among the identified species, Caryocorbula caribaea, Codakia pectinella and Diplodonta punctata were intertidally abundant, while Macoma uruguayensis and Pitar fulminata were subtidally abundant.


    • VITONIS J. E. E. V, ZANIRATTO C. P, PASSOS F. D & MACHADO F. M. (2012). Comparative studies on the histology and ultrastructure of the siphons of two species of Tellinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from Brazil. Zoologia (Curitiba), (29): 219-226.

    Link: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1984-46702012000300005


    Abstract: Despite the great importance of the siphons for infaunal bivalves, only a few studies have examined their tissues using histology techniques or scanning electron microscopy. In the present study, the siphons of Tellina lineataTurton, 1819 and Macoma biota Arruda & Domaneschi, 2005 were investigated. The siphon walls are composed by a series of muscle sheets of longitudinal ("L"), circular ("C") and radial ("R") fibers, with a clear pattern common to both species: there is a main median longitudinal layer (Lm), and two peripheral circular layers, one inner (Ci) and one outer (Co), near the epithelia. A median circular layer (Cm) separates an internal (Lmi) from an outer (Lmo) median longitudinal layer. Further, the Co is split by a thin outer longitudinal layer (Lo), forming Coi and Coo layers, the former being obliquely oriented. Thin radial fibers (R) delimit clear packages of Lmi and Lmo fibers. In each siphon, there are six longitudinal nerve cords, running within the Lmi layer, adjacent to the Cm. The inhalant and exhalant siphons of M. biota are very similar in structure, but the Lmo of the exhalant siphon is almost twice as thick as its Lmi, while in the inhalant siphon these layers have similar thicknesses; the Coi is very thick, especially in the exhalant siphon. The inhalant siphon of T. lineata is very similar to that of M. biota, differing only with respect to the thickness of the Coi, which in the former species is not as well developed as in the latter. The Lmo of the exhalant siphon of T. lineata is by far the most developed layer, with the Lmi represented only by uniseriate small cells; in the vicinities of the nerve cords, the Cm is split in two layers. The epithelia of both siphons of M. biota and T. lineata bear ciliated receptors, which were difficult to observe as they were frequently covered with mucus. It was possible to observe that cilia are present in both species, differing in length and in the number per receptor between the inhalant and exhalant siphons, and between the species. Detailed comparisons among the siphons of M. biota and T. lineata and other bivalve species are very difficult, because of at least two reasons. First, each investigator has used different methods to prepare and observe the siphons through histological sections; and second, different nomenclatural schemes are used to describe the musculature of the siphons, causing confusion when the same layers are compared among different species. In order to unify the nomenclature of tissue layers of the bivalve siphons, we now propose a scheme to name these layers based on topological homology.

  • Awards

    FIRST PLACE. Award Dr. Antonio García Cubas al estímulo a la investigación (best oral presentation)

    VIII Latin American Congress of Malacology (2011)

    FIRST PLACE. Student prize in honor of Dr. William Heard (best poster)

    XI Internacional Congress on Medical and Applied Malacology Crossing boundaries: Integrative Approach (2012)

    FIRST PLACE- Award Prof. Maury Pinto de Oliveira (best oral presentation- co-author)

    XXIV Encontro Brasileiro de Malacologia (2015)

  • contact

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    -Work address-

    Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Biologia (Departamento de Biologia Animal- DBA), Laboratório de Malacologia. Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP). Campinas (SP) - Brasil, CEP: 13083-970.